Lessons from the Mavericks Sexual Harassment Scandal: Specific Steps Your Company Can Take to Avoid a #MeToo Situation

Mavericks Presser CH Monday KDFWBCME01.mpg_16.14.49.12_1519684038394.png_5007658_ver1.0_640_360On Wednesday, Mavericks released a 43-page report containing the results of a seven-month investigation into the allegations of a pervasive culture of sexual harassment that permeated the organization over the past 20 years.  The allegations first came to light in an article published by Sports Illustrated in February of this year.  The investigation report largely substantiates many of the facts described in the article and provides many recommendations for changes within the Mavericks organization. 

If your company is worried about the #MeToo movement (hint, every company should be) and is attempting to make sure that it eliminates sexual harassment among its employees, the recommendations from the Mavericks’ investigation report provide a good road map for doing so. 

Ask yourself, is your company doing the following: 

  • Increasing the number of women through the organization including in leadership and supervisory positions. 
  • Improving formal harassment reporting process and creating paths for victims to report misconduct
  • Evaluating, and holding accountable, all executives, managers, and supervisors on their efforts to eliminate harassment and improve diversity of all kinds throughout the organization
  • Conducting anonymous workplace culture and sexual harassment climate surveys on regular basis to understand the culture of the organization and whether problems exist
  • Establishing clear hierarchies and lines of decision-making authority within the organization
  • Strengthening and expanding Human Resources, and implementing clear protocols and processes for evaluating and adjudicating workplace misconduct issues. This should include providing clear communication to employees on the anti-harassment policy and how to report harassment. 
  • Providing “prompt and proportionate” and “consistent” discipline across the organization when harassment or misconduct has been substantiated. 
  • Providing regular training for all employees on sexual harassment (including bystander intervention training), and special training directed at managers and supervisors.  Leaders across the Company should participate in the training and take an active leadership role in providing trust and safety in the workplace. 
  • Adopting clear, transparent, office-wide processes for hiring, on-boarding, promotions, lateral transfers, performance valuations, salary increases, and discipline within the organization. This should include centralizing key employment functions within the Human Resources department. 
  • Collecting and using data to add value to the company and to identify weaknesses. 
  • Requiring that all leaders, managers, and supervisors engage in efforts to improve workplace culture and to ensure a diverse inclusive workplace.

BOTTOM LINE:  Eradicating sexual harassment in the workplace requires commitment from the upper echelons with the company, creation of clear anti-harassment policies, effective training, and consistent enforcement of such policies. If your company is committed to making a change, but not sure where to begin, the above recommendations provide a good starting check list for making such changes. 

Leiza Dolghih is a partner at Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP in Dallas, Texas and a Co-Chair of the firm’s Trade Secrets and Non-Compete Disputes national practice Her practice includes commercial, intellectual property and employment litigation.  You can contact her directly at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108 or fill out the form below.

 

 

Employers Are Responsible for Stopping Sexual Harassment by Non-Employees

imagesIn the wake of the #MeToo movement, many employers remain unaware that they must investigate sexual harassment allegations and take appropriate measures if sexual harassment is perpetrated by non-employees, such as customers  or vendors.

A recent opinion from the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals addressed just this issue when the court considered whether a nurse at a nursing home facility who repeatedly complained of sexual harassment by a patient with dementia presented a strong enough claim to go to trial.  The Fifth Circuit found that she did. And although Gardner v. CLC of Pascagoula, L.L.C. involved a rather common and pervasive problem of patient-nurse sexual harassment, the Court’s analysis is usefull for all companies where employees have interaction with customers or third parties on a regular basis.

The Court of Appeals reminded that pursuant to the Regulation issued by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): 

An employer may [] be responsible for the acts of non-employees, with respect to sexual harassment of employees in the workplace, where the employer (or its agents or supervisory employees) knows or should have known of the conduct and fails to take immediate and appropriate corrective action. In reviewing these cases the Commission will consider the extent of the employer’s control and any other legal responsibility which the employer may have with respect to the conduct of such non-employees. 29 C.F.R. 1604.11(e)

In Gardner, the patient who suffered from a host of mental disorders, had a documented history of grabbing the female nurses’ “breasts, butts, thighs, and trying to grab their private areas,” and asking them to engage in sexual activity with him as well as making lewd sexual comments.  Several nurses routinely recorded this behavior on the patient’s chart and made complaints to their supervisors. Additionally, at least one of the supervisors observed the patient behaving in a sexually inappropriate manner.  

When the plaintiff-nurse attempted to discuss her concerns about the patient’s behavior, her supervisor and the nursing facility administrators allegedly laughed and told her to “put [her] big girl patients on and go back to work.”  Eventually, after the patient punched her in the breast while she was trying to assist him, she asked to be reassigned.  Her request was denied.  The patient was soon transferred to an all-male facility but only after he had punched a male resident. 

The district court granted the employer’s summary judgment finding that a hostile work environment did not exist because it was “not clear to the court that the harassing comments and attempts to grope and hit [were] beyond what a person in the [nurse’s] position should [have] expect[ed] of patients in a nursing home.”  

The Court of Appeals disagreed, however, ruling that while inappropriate comments from patients with reduced cognitive abilities may not rise to the level of legally-actionable sexual harassment, where a patient crosses the line into physical contact, which progresses from occasional inappropriate touching or minor slapping to persistent sexual harassment or violence with the risk of significant physical harm, the employer must take steps to try to protect an employee. 

BOTTOM LINE: If a company becomes aware that its employees are being harassed by a third party, such a customer or vendor, the company has an obligation to take steps immediately to get the harassment to stop. This may include reassignment of the employee, adding security, conversations with a customer or a vendor, and a host of other measures.  Ignoring the situation once the employer becomes aware of it may result in a liability under Title VII. 

Leiza Dolghih is a partner at Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP in Dallas, Texas and a Co-Chair of the firm’s Trade Secrets and Non-Compete Disputes national practice Her practice includes commercial, intellectual property and employment litigation.  You can contact her directly at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108 or fill out the form below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Federal Government Warns That Anti-Poaching and Wage-Fixing Agreements May Violate Antitrust Laws. What Does This Mean for Texas Companies?

dojThe Department of Justice (DOJ) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) recently issued Antitrust Guidance for HR Professionals (“Guidance”) intended to alert professionals involved in hiring and compensation decisions to potential violations of the antitrust laws.

This Guidance is the result of the infamous wage-fixing anti-poaching agreement among Ebay, Google, Apple, and other heavy-weights of the tech industry, which came to light in 2010 during the DOJ investigation and a civil class action involving 64,000 employees of such companies that settled in September of last year.

You can find the full text here, but the Guidance can be boiled down to the following simple rules for HR professionals:

  • companies that compete for employees are competitors regardless of whether they sell the same products or provide the same services
  • it is unlawful for competitors to agree not to compete with each other
  • therefore, companies may not agree – expressly or implicitly, in writing or orally – not to poach each other’s employees or to cap salaries or benefits of their employees
  • specifically, HR professionals are “likely” breaking the anti-trust laws if they:
    • agree with individuals at another company about employee salary or other terms of compensation, either at a specific level or within a range (wage-fixing agreement), or
    • agree with individuals at another company to refuse to solicit or hire that other company’s employees (“no poaching” agreements)
  • HR professionals should avoid sharing sensitive information with competitors as it could serve as evidence of an implicit illegal agreement (especially where it causes companies to match each other’s arrangement)

What are the consequences of violating the anti-trust rules?  The DOJ and/or FTC may bring a felony criminal prosecution against individuals involved in anti-poaching or wage-fixing agreements, the company, or both. Additionally, individual employees may bring a civil suit for three times the damages they suffered.

Takeaway for HR Professionals: We all know that price-fixing for goods is illegal, i.e., competing companies cannot get together and agree to charge consumers a certain price for certain goods in the market.  The Guidance makes it clear that agreeing on wages for employees is just as illegal and will be prosecuted.

What does this mean for Texas companies in terms of non-compete agreements?  The companies may still enter into such agreements with their employees (as long as they comply with the Texas Covenants not to Compete Act).  However, they cannot agree with other competing companies on the terms of such non-compete agreements. For example, Companies A and B, which are competing for the same employees, cannot enter into an agreement that they both will tie up their employees with no less than a 2-year, 30-mile non-compete agreement, or that the non-compete specifically will prohibit employees from working for Company A (if they worked for Company B), and vice versa. When in doubt about the legality of your particular agreement, seek legal counsel.

Leiza litigates unfair competition, non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits on behalf of companies and employees, and has advised hundreds of clients regarding non-compete and trade secret issues. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

 

Staffing Agency Could be on the Hook for Termination of an 83-Year Old Receptionist at Client’s Request

staffing-agencyThe Fifth Circuit recently addressed an interesting issue – when a staffing agency’s client asks to replace an employee, does the staffing agency have a duty to investigate the reasons for the request?  For example, if a staffing agency’s client calls and says we want you to replace Bob, who is African-American, does the agency have a duty to ask why the client wants to terminate Bob and make sure it is not because of his race? The Fifth Circuit ruled that a staffing agency must follow its usual practices in responding to a client’s desire to have an employee removed, and a deviation from such practices may serve as evidence that the staffing agency knew or should have known of the client’s discrimination. So, in the example above, if the staffing agency typically investigates a client’s complaint about an employee, but in Bob’s case it removes him without confirming that he was unable to do his job, such action may create an issue of fact (and prevent summary judgment in favor of the employer) as to whether the staffing agency knew or should have known that the client’s request to remove the employee was discriminatory.

In Nicholson v. Securitas Services USA, Securitas was asked by a client to replace an 83-year old receptionist due to her not being able to perform new technology-related tasks. Securitas removed Nicholson, without asking her for an explanation and without any investigation, and replaced her with a 29-year old employee. According to at least one of its employees, this failure to “check out” the complaint or investigate the reason for the client’s request, was not a normal procedure at Securitas. The Fifth Circuit, therefore, found that the trial court improperly granted Securitas’ summary judgment because there was a fact issue regarding whether the staffing agency knew or should have known that its client’s request to replace Nicholson was motivated by her age.

Takeway:  A staffing agency is liable for discriminatory conduct of its joint-employer client if it (1) participates in the discrimination or (2) knows or should have known of client’s discrimination but fails to take corrective measures within its control. Moreover, a staffing agency’s deviation from standard evaluation or investigation practices is evidence of discriminatory intent.

Thus, staffing agencies should follow their policies and procedures in a consistent manner when faced with a client’s request to remove or replace an employee. If such request is later found to have been based on a prohibited discriminatory factor, a staffing agency who replaces an employee without investigating the client’s complaint may be liable for discrimination along with its client, if its failure to investigate constitutes deviation from its standard procedures.

Leiza is a business and employment litigation attorney in Dallas, Texas. If you need assistance with a business or employment dispute contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

 

The Fifth Circuit Reminds that the Interactive Process Under ADA Is a Two-Way Street

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The Fifth Circuit recently found in favor of the City of Austin for firing a disabled employee because he did not attempt to perform his new lighter-duty job in good faith.  After the employee was injured on the job, the city offered him an administrative position as an accommodation because he could not perform manual labor required by his prior job.  

The employee accepted the new job, but began missing work, played computer games and surfed internet, slept on the job, made personal phone calls and applied for other positions within the city while at work.  He also refused to participate in any training that would have helped him perform his new job.  

After he was fired, he sued the city alleging discrimination based on disability and failure to provide him with reasonable accommodation. The Fifth Circuit found no discrimination and emphasized that “terminating an employee whose performance is unsatisfactory according to management’s business judgment is legitimate and nondiscriminatory as a matter of law.”  It further explained the boundaries of the interactive process between an employer and an employee who requests an accommodation for his disability.

Once an employee requests an accommodation based on a disability, the employer and employee must work together in good faith, back and forth, to find a reasonable accommodation. The process does not end with the first offer of accommodation but continues when the employee asks for a different accommodation or where the employer is aware that the initial accommodation is failing and further accommodation is needed. Thus, the process is a two-way street.  In this case, once the employee accepted an administrative position, he had to make an honest effort to learn and carry out the duties of his new job with the help of the training that his employer had offered to him. He certainly had an obligation not to engage in misconduct at work.   Once he had shown no desire to try to succeed in that position, the city had no duty to offer him another job. After all, the ADA provides a right to reasonable accommodation, not the employee’s preferred accommodation.

Takeaway: When an employee requests a reasonable accommodation due to disability, the employer must engage in an interactive process with that employee to determine what reasonable accommodation will help the employee perform his or her duties. Employers should always document the process so that they have proof of engaging in it in good faith.  Employees should also engage in the process in good faith, which means that if an accommodation is granted to them, they should try to take advantage of it. At the end of the day, an employer is required to provide reasonable accommodation, but not necessarily the accommodation requested by the employee.

Leiza is a business and employment attorney in Dallas, Texas. If you need assistance with a business or employment dispute contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

 

Fox Goes to War with Netflix Over Two Programming Executives Who Jumped Ship

160916165507-netflix-fox-logos-780x439In a move that suggests that Fox might be feeling the burn of Netflix competition, the network Goliath has recently sued the king of online streaming over hiring of its two programming executives.  In the lawsuit, Fox claims that Netflix induced these employees to breach their employment agreements with Fox and thus tortiously interfered with their contracts causing it irreparable harm. It alleges that the conduct was illegal since Neftlix knew about the employment agreements – in fact was warned by Fox about them –  but decided to poach the executives anyways.

Coming out swinging, Fox described Netflix’s actions in the complaint as follows:

Netflix is engaged in a brazen campaign to unlawfully target, recruit, and poach valuable Fox executives by illegally inducing them to break their employment contracts with Fox to work at Netflix.  This action is necessary to enforce Fox’s rights, to hold Netflix liable for its wrongful conduct, and to prevent Netflix from continuing such illegal conduct.

Fox did not sue the two executives, who are now working on drama programming development for Neftlix. However, it seeks injunctive relief against Netflix to restrain it from interfering with the executives’ employment agreements claiming that Netflix’s conduct caused it “great and irreparable harm, including loss of Fox’s ability to contract for a stable workforce, the disruption to Fox’s corporate planning, and the injury to Fox’s business reputation and goodwill.”  Thus, while the executives are not named as defendants in the lawsuit, should the court grant Fox’s injunction, the order will necessarily affect the executives’ employment with Netflix. 

Takeaway:  2016 has been the year of high-profile non-compete battles in several industries. Nike, Fitbit, Lyft, and now Fox, have all been involved in lawsuits arising out of departure of key employees who ended up working for a competitor. Given the uptick in such litigation, companies should approach the process of hiring from competitors with caution and conduct their factual and legal homework before extending offers to such hires.  

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Leiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits in a variety of industries, and has advised hundreds of clients regarding non-compete and trade secret issues. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Are Non-Compete Agreements Enforceable in Texas?

kkGenerally, Texas allows non-compete agreements between employers and employees as long as they are reasonable in scope, geographic area, and term, and meet a few other requirements. See my previous posts about those requirements here, here, and here

Practically speaking, however, whether a particular non-compete agreement is valid depends heavily on the exact language used in the agreement.  Just as with any other contract, Texas courts will usually look at the precise language of a particular employment agreement to determine what the parties had in mind when they entered into it. 

Last year, a hospitalist group in Houston learned the above principles the hard way when it attempted to enforce a non-compete covenant against a physician who went to work for a competitor and discovered that the non-compete did not prohibit the physician from doing so. 

In Tummalla et. al. v. Total Inpatient Services, P.A., the non-compete clause between the hospitalist group and the physician stated the following:

6.2 NonCompete. In consideration for the access to the Confidential Information provided by [TIPS] and in order to enforce the Physician’s Agreement regarding such Confidential Information, Physician agrees that he/she shall not, during the term of this Agreement and for a period of one (1) year from the date this Agreement expires pursuant to Section 8.3 or is terminated by Physician pursuant to Section 8.6 (the “Restriction Period”), without the prior written consent of [TIPS], except in the performance of duties for [TIPS] pursuant to this Agreement, directly or indirectly within any Hospital in the Service Area or any other hospital in which the Physician practiced on behalf of [TIPS], in excess of 40 hours, within his last year of employment with [TIPS]:
6.2.1 Provide services as a hospitalist physician to any entity that offers inpatient hospital and emergency department services.
In a separate provision in the same agreement, however, it stated that the physician’s first 12 months on the job were to be considered an “introductory period” during which either party could terminate the employment relationship for any reason. The specific paragraph stated that it applied notwithstanding any other provision in the agreement and it failed to included or mention any non-compete restrictions. 

The court of appeals analyzed these various clauses in the contract and concluded that because the physician terminated his employment with the hospitalist group within the first year, i.e. the “introductory period,” the post-employment non-compete clause did not apply to him. Thus, he was free to compete with his former employer. 

TAKEAWAY FOR EMPLOYERS: Employers should have a qualified attorney draft and/or review their non-compete agreements.  While there are many forms out there, because non-compete agreements in Texas have to be catered towards each employer’s business and because courts will scrutinize the language when determining whether to enforce the agreement or not, using a standard form may result in the employer not being able to enforce it due to gaps in the language or failure to address specific termination situations.

TAKEAWAY FOR EMPLOYEES:  Signing a non-compete agreement without reading it first can result in a major headache down the road and severely limit employee’s career options.  Therefore, employees should always: (1) read the agreement; (2) request a clarification if something is not clear; and (3) keep a copy of the signed agreement for their records.

Leiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits in a variety of industries, and has advised hundreds of clients regarding non-compete and trade secret issues. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Texas Employment Hiring Checklist

startupbusiness_hiregoodpeopleWhether a new business is preparing to hire its first employee or is revisiting its already-existing hiring procedures, making sure that the on-boarding process is done correctly and consistently will result in significant long-term benefits in terms of reducing stress associated with hiring new employees, decreasing legal risks arising out of improper hiring procedures, and ensuring that the business is protected if an employee happens not to work out and must be terminated.  The following guide provides a basic list of forms that any Texas business should make part of its employee files.*

1. Employment Application.  Every employee should fill out and sign an employment application. Make sure to keep an electronic copy of all employment documents and keep them confidential.

2. I-9 Form. Every employer must obtain an I-9 form and the appropriate employment eligibility verification documents from each new employee.

3. Confidentiality Agreement.  Have every employee who has access to confidential information sign such an agreement. Make sure the agreement is enforceable in Texas and contains all the key provisions.

4. Non-Compete/Non-Solicitation Agreement. Have key employees execute non-competition and/or non-solicitation agreements.  Consult with an attorney to determine which agreement will best benefit your business and make sure that the agreement meets all the requirements under Texas law.

5. Criminal Background Check.  Run criminal background checks on employees, but make sure you comply with any “check-the-box” rules that might be in force in your geographic location.

6. Personnel Data Form.  Make sure all employees complete the form upon hiring.

7. Emergency Contact Form.  Have this form easily accessible in case of emergency (i.e. do not include it in a confidential file that only HR or owner may access).

8. W-4 Form.  Have all employees fill out this form required under federal law.

9. Employer Property Form.  If the company provides certain equipment to employees, such as mobile phones or laptops, make sure that employees sign a form acknowledging receipt of that equipment, so that when they depart, the company knows exactly what equipment must be returned. 

10. Employee Handbook Acknowledgement Form.  If a business has an employee handbook or manual, make sure that every employee signs a form acknowledging that s/he read the handbook and understands that s/he must comply with the rules described in the handbook.

11. COBRA Rights Notification.  Employers with 20 or more employees (full- and part-time) that maintain a Group Health Plan must provide the Initial Notification of COBRA Rights to each employee at the time the employee becomes covered by the plan, which is usually at the time of hire.

12. Anti-Harassment/Retaliation Training.  Have employees sign a form acknowledging the date of completion of such training.  If they complete the training online, make sure that the company receives a copy of the certificate of completion and saves it in the personnel file.

* For a complete list of hiring forms or to ensure an up to date compliance, consult with an employment attorney.

Leiza represents companies in business and employment litigation. If you need assistance with a business or employment dispute contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Erasing Employer Files Costs Employee Severance Pay

vector-hands-with-pen-document-money_146647163The Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which presides over Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, recently held that an employer could deny employee his severance benefits under an ERISA benefits plan because the employee erased certain files from his computer before returning the laptop to the employer.  

In Gomez v. Ericsson, Inc., Gomez worked for telecommunications company for about three years before being laid off. Shortly after Gomez’s termination, the company presented him with a severance agreement. Under its terms, Gomez was required to waive certain claims against the company and return the company’s property in his possession. In exchange for doing so, the company promised Gomez severance pay pursuant to the terms of both its Standard Severance Plan and Top Contributor Enhanced Severance Plan of 2010.  

However, after the company received Gomez’s laptop, it determined that he had erased certain files from it. Consequently, the plan administrator for the company determined that the employee did not comply with a provision of his severance agreement requiring the return of all company property because work files were missing on the company laptop he returned.  The Court of Appeals agreed with the company. 

TAKEAWAY:    Most companies are not required to pay severance, but will offer it in return for employees agreeing to release their claims against the company and making certain promises to the employer, such as return of property or an agreement not to compete. Signing such agreements without understanding what they require can cost employees their benefits. Thus, before signing any sort of severance documents, employees should carefully read them and, where necessary, consult with an attorney.

Leiza represents companies in business and employment litigation. If you need assistance with a business or employment dispute contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Employers Should Consider Protection of Trade Secrets When Responding to EEOC Charges

imagesWhen responding to an EEOC charge of discrimination, employers should always separate and clearly mark any trade secrets or confidential information included in the position statement to the EEOC. This is especially important in light of the EEOC’s new procedures that provide for the release of employers’ position statements and non-confidential attachments to employees who filed charges or their representatives upon request during the EEOC investigation.

The new procedures apply to all EEOC requests for position statements made to employers on or after January 1, 2016.

During the investigation of a charge, the EEOC may request that the employer submit a position statement and documents supporting its position. The statements should discuss the facts relevant to the charge of discrimination and identify the specific documents and evidence supporting the position. See my previous posts on how to draft a position statement here, here, and here.

If an employer relies on confidential information in its position statement, it should provide such information in separately labeled attachments. After the EEOC reviews the employer’s position statement and attachments on a specific charge, the EEOC staff may redact confidential information as necessary prior to releasing the information to a charging employee or his or her representative.

According to the EEOC:

The position statement should refer to, but not identify, information the [employer] asserts is sensitive medical information, confidential commercial or confidential financial information.  If the [employer] relies on confidential information in its position statement, it should provide such information in separate attachments to the position statement labeled “Sensitive Medical Information,” “Confidential Commercial Information” or “Confidential Financial Information,” or “Trade Secret Information” as applicable.  The [employer] should provide an explanation justifying the confidential nature of the information contained in the attachments.  

What type of information is “confidential” that should be put into separately labeled attachments? According to the EEOC, the employer should segregate the following information into separate attachments and designate them as follows:

  • Sensitive medical information (except for the charging employee’s medical information).
  • Social Security Numbers.
  • Confidential commercial or confidential financial information.
  • Trade secrets information.
  • Non-relevant personally identifiable information of witnesses, comparators or third parties, for example, social security numbers, dates of birth in non-age cases, home addresses, personal phone numbers, personal email addresses, etc.
  • Any reference to charges filed against the employer by other charging parties.

The EEOC will review attachments designated as confidential and consider the justification provided.  Thus, employers should be judicious in what information they mark as “confidential” or “trade secrets information” and be able to explain why that information is designated that way. Disclosing such information to the EEOC without confidentiality or trade secret designation may later result in the company not being able to claim such information as “trade secret” under the Texas Uniform Trade Secrets Act.

Leiza Dolghih frequently advises employers on how to handle troublesome employees, assists with responding to EEOC charges and investigations, and litigates employment disputes. For additional information, contact Leiza at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.