What Employers Need to Know About Non-Compete Agreements in Texas (Part II)

imagesIn Part I, I described requirements for non-compete agreements in Texas. In Part II, I describe the common mistakes that employers make when it comes to non-compete agreements: 

1. Not signing non-compete agreements with key employees.  It seems like a no-brainer, but there are still a lot of companies out there that do not require their employees to sign any non-compete agreements. This is a mistake.  A reasonable non-compete agreement can benefit both the company and the employees. A company is more likely to invest into training of its employees if it knows that they will not leave to work for a competitor as soon as the training is completed, and fair geographic restriction will not prevent employees from finding future employment.

2. Having restrictions that are too overbroad. Overreaching in non-compete agreements can backfire in that employees end up feeling like they have no choice but to violate them in order to make a living and courts are less likely to enforce such overbroad non-compete agreements. 

3. Not having a legitimate business interest to protect. A Texas employer must share its confidential information or goodwill with an employee in order to create an enforceable non-compete agreement.  There is no legitimate business interest in tying up employees with non-compete agreements if they perform tasks that do not involve specialized training, confidential information or goodwill of their employer. 

4. Making all employees execute the same non-compete agreement. Requiring the same 2-year / 200-mile non-compete agreement for sales people, secretaries, and C-level executives raises a red flag that the company is simply trying to prevent competition and is not protecting a legitimate business interest.  Employees that perform different tasks or serve a different purpose should have different non-compete restraints depending on what they do in the company.

5. Not providing a proper consideration. Different states require different types of consideration for non-compete agreements. In some states, just a promise of future employment is sufficient. In other states, an employer must pay money to an employee in exchange for the promise not to compete.  Texas companies should make sure that their non-compete agreements are supported by the right type of consideration in the state where they plan to enforce the non-compete agreements.

6. Not providing new consideration.  When asking an already-existing employee to sign a non-compete agreement, employers must provide new consideration for the agreement.  For more information, see my previous post here.

7. Not enforcing non-compete agreements. Once proper non-compete agreements are in place, companies should make it a policy to enforce them.  Otherwise, the agreements lose their effectiveness with employees, who quickly learn from co-workers that the company never enforces its contracts. 

8. Not enforcing non-compete agreements fast enough.  This is one of the gravest mistakes for companies in terms of consequences. The longer a company waits to seek a temporary restraining order against an employee who is violating his or her non-compete agreement, the more likely the court is to deny the restraining order because the company cannot show an “imminent” and “irreparable” injury.   In other words, if the company has not tried to stop the bleeding, how bad could the bleeding really be and does the court really need to enter an emergency order?

9. Not providing confidential information. As mentioned above, a proper consideration for a non-compete agreement in Texas includes a company’s promise to provide confidential information to the employees signing the agreement.  Companies, however, must deliver on that promise and actually provide such confidential information in order to make their non-compete agreements enforceable.

10. Not saving an electronic version of the signed non-compete agreements.  Companies must make sure that they save an electronic signed version of their non-compete agreements in a location where employees cannot access and delete them.  

Leiza Dolghih is a partner at Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP in Dallas, Texas and a Co-Chair of the firm’s Trade Secrets and Non-Compete Disputes national practice.  Her practice includes commercial, intellectual property and employment litigation.  You can contact her directly at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

The Rise in Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants Litigation – Live Presentation

screenshot_20190107-093330_instagram-01I will be presenting with Stanley Santire of Santire Law Firm on the The Rise in Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants Litigation on January 17th at 2:30 p.m. at the Texas Bar Advanced Employment Law Course in Dallas, Texas.  You can get a copy of our paper by registering to attend the event (registration link here).

This is a fantastic course for employment lawyers in Texas, which offers 15 hours of CLE credit over two days.

Additional presentations will include:

  • State Law Update
  • Anti-Slapp Update
  • Conducting Effective Investigations
  • What Is it Worth? How We Value Employment Cases 
  • Proving Up Attorney’s Fees
  • Structuring Settlement Agreements
  • Practical Applications and Q&A
  • Best Practices in Summary Judgment
  • Defining Harassment: Has it Really Changed in the #metoo Era
  • Effective Training: You Need More Than a Video
  • The Evolving Landscape of LGBTQ Protections
  • FMLA and FLSA Updates 
  • Social Media Evidence and Ethics 

Leiza Dolghih is a partner at Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP in Dallas, Texas and a Co-Chair of the firm’s Trade Secrets and Non-Compete Disputes national practice.  Her practice includes commercial, intellectual property and employment litigation.  You can contact her directly at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Top 5 Non-Compete Cases in Texas in 2018

Top5Unlike many other states around the country, Texas did not see any drastic changes in its non-competition laws in 2018.  However, out of a 100 + cases involving non-competition disputes, the following handful stand out: 

  1. Thoroughbred Ventures, LLC v. Disman, Civil Action No. 4:18-CV-00318, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 133697, at *10 (E.D. Tex. 2018).*

HeldA non-disclosure agreement that prohibits employees from using, in competition with the former employer, the general knowledge, skill, and experience acquired in former employment is similar to a non-compete clause and must meet the requirements of the Texas Covenants not to Compete Act. 

Why it made the top five list: This is the first case in Texas to hold that certain non-disclosure clauses may have to meet the same requirements as non-competition agreements.  

Quote: “An agreement prohibiting a former employee in this field from disclosing his acquaintances would therefore be a non-competition agreement in disguise, and would be unenforceable as such. Some of the other categories of confidential information-for example, financial information-might present different problems, but the present motion does not accuse the Former Employees of disclosing anything other than information related to Clients and Contractors.’”

2. Fomine v. Barrett, No. 01-17-00401-CV, 2018 Tex. App. LEXIS 10024, at *8 (App.—Houston [1st Dist.] Dec. 6, 2018)

Held:  A non-competition clause that covers a geographic area where an employer plans to extend its business in the future, without any concrete plans to do so (i.e. just the owner saying s/he is going to expand), is geographically overbroad.

Why it made the top five list: Employers will often include in their non-competition agreements areas of future business expansion.  This case demonstrates that unless the plans for future expansion are definite,  the employers should stick with the area where the business currently operates or where its employees currently work. 

3. Ortega v. Abel, No. 01-16-00415-CV, 2018 Tex. App. LEXIS 6690, at *11 (App.—Houston [1st Dist.] Aug. 23, 2018).

Held: The right of first refusal in the asset purchase agreement, which prohibited a party from operating a business without first offering another party the right to be a partner in the business was a “restraint of trade,” subject to the Texas Covenants Not to Compete Act. 

Why it made the top five list:  This case demonstrates that Texas Covenants Not to Compete Act applies to any restraint of trade, not just the plain vanilla non-competition and non-solicitation agreements in the employment or sale of business context. 

4. Accruent, LLC v. Short, No. 1:17-CV-858-RP, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 1441, at *12 (W.D. Tex. 2018).

Held: A non-competition clause that prohibits employees from competing with their employer anywhere where the employer does business (as opposed to where the employees worked) can be enforceable against those employees who had extensive access to the company’s confidential information.

Why it made the top five list:  Generally speaking, an employer can only prohibit an employee from competing in the area where the employee worked. However, this case creates an exception to the rule where employees have extensive access to and “intimate knowledge” of highly confidential information of their employer. 

Quote: “Because Short was Lucernex’s senior solution engineer, he now has an “intimate knowledge of all Lucernex product functionality.” Short knows about Lucernex’s unreleased software and its roadmap for future product development. He knows the product functionalities requested by Lucernex customers. He knows Lucernex’s business development plans, its market research, its sales goals, and its marketing strategy. . . Given everything Short knows about Lucernex and its products, customers, and prospects, Short can help a competitor take business from Accruent in any state or country where Lucernex did business. It is therefore reasonable for the noncompete provision to extend to every state or country in which Lucernex did business.”

5. D’Onofrio v. Vacation Publ’ns, Inc., 888 F.3d 197, 212 (5th Cir. 2018)

Held: A non-competition clause that prohibits an employee from working for competitors of the former employer “in any capacity,” without geographic or client-based boundaries, is unenforceable. 

Why it made the top five list:  The Fifth Circuit confirmed, yet again, that an industry-wide restraint on a departing employee, which is not limited to a certain geographic area or the clients that the employee dealt with, is unenforceable under the Texas Covenants Not to Compete Act.     

*Keep in mind that any decisions mentioned in this post may be appealed and their holdings may be overruled.  Therefore, employers should always consult with a qualified employment lawyer to determine the current status of the law applicable to their particular dispute.

Leiza Dolghih is a partner at Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP in Dallas, Texas and a Co-Chair of the firm’s Trade Secrets and Non-Compete Disputes national practice Her practice includes commercial, intellectual property and employment litigation.  You can contact her directly at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Top 5 Non-Compete Cases in Texas in 2017

yearendAlthough the weather outside suggests otherwise, it is, indeed, December – a time traditionally reserved for reflection upon the year’s achievements.  So, let’s take a look at the top five most important non-compete cases in Texas in 2017.

  1. BM Med. Mgmt. Serv., LLC v. Turner (Tex. App.–Dallas, Jan. 10, 2017)*

Held: The employer failed to show a probable, imminent, and irreparable injury in breach of a non-compete case, as the employee had returned his computer and testified that he did not possess any papers or electronic files related to the employer’s business.

Why it made the Top Five list:  Early in each non-compete breach / trade secrets theft case, an employer may have an opportunity to examine the departed employee’s devices and confirm that its confidential information is no longer there.  This case demonstrates that taking advantage of that opportunity may result in the denial of a temporary injunction as it eliminates the probability of imminent and irreparable injury since the employee no longer has the employer’s confidential information.

2. In re Pickrell (Tex. App.–Waco, April 19, 2017)

Held: The employer failed to produce evidence necessary to obtain a Rule 202 pre-suit deposition to investigate whether its former employee had  honored his non-compete obligations.

Why it made the Top Five list:  A party contemplating a lawsuit in Texas may sometimes depose the potential defendant to determine if it has a legal claim against him/her.  This procedure is called a pre-suit or Rule 202 deposition.  In re Pickrell shows that an employer cannot depose a departed employee for the purpose of investigating whether he/she honored his non-compete agreement based on the employer’s suspicion that the employee may be violating the agreement solely because he is now working for a competitor. 

3. Sanders v. Future Com., Ltd. (Tex. App.–Fort Worth, May 18, 2017)

Held: Requiring an employee to repay training costs is not a covenant not to compete and is not subject to the requirements of the Texas Covenants not to Compete Act.

Why it made the Top Five List: This case establishes that Texas employers can deduct reasonable training expenses out of employees’ salaries if they leave before the employer is able to recoup its training costs.  Any overreaching, however, by employers may result in a violation of the Texas Covenants not to Compete Act.  See, for example, Rieves v. Buc-ee’s Ltd. (below). Additionally, any deductions need to be structured to comply with other laws, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act, and must be verifiable and not speculative. For more information, look here.

4. Rieves v. Buc-ee’s Ltd., (Tex. App.–Houston, Oct. 12, 2017)

Held: Requiring an employee to repay a portion of her salary upon termination is a “restraint on trade” in violation of the Texas Covenants Not to Compete Act. 

Why it made the Top Five List:  The Court’s decision shows that any provision in the employment agreement that restricts employee’s mobility must be analyzed through the lens of the Texas Covenants Not to Compete Act, not just non-compete clauses. For more information, look here.

5. Horizon Health Corp. v. Acadia Healthcare Co. (Tex.  2017)

Held: The employer failed to establish that the departed employee’s actions caused it lost profits because it could not prove that the customer that went with the departed employee would have signed a contract with the employer. 

Why it made the Top Five List:  Texas courts require that a company seeking damages based on lost profits produce evidence establishing that prospective customers would have done business with the company absent the defendant’s misconduct.  In this case, the company failed to show that a customer that it claimed it lost due to the departed employee’s actions would have signed a contract with that company had it not signed with the departed employee’s new company.

*Keep in mind that any decisions by the Texas Courts of Appeals may be appealed to the Texas Supreme Court, which may ultimately disagree with their findings.  Therefore, employers should always consult with a qualified employment lawyer to determine the current status of the law applicable to their particular dispute.

Leiza Dolghih is a partner at Lewis Brisbois Bisgaard & Smith LLP in Dallas, Texas and a Co-Chair of the firm’s Trade Secrets and Non-Compete Disputes national practice Her practice includes commercial, intellectual property and employment litigation.  You can contact her directly at Leiza.Dolghih@LewisBrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108 or fill out the form below.

 

 

Is Your Non-Compete Agreement Enforceable?

stevecarelEvery state has its own rules about the enforceability of non-compete agreements, with many technical requirements, carve outs for certain industries like medical and technology, and various presumptions or public policy-driven rules regarding employers’ ability to limit competition from former employees.

Recently, I’ve been receiving a lot of inquiries from Texas employers or companies that are moving to Texas regarding: (1) whether non-compete agreements are enforceable in Texas?  (2) what types of non-compete agreements are enforceable in this state?  and (3) when should I enforce my non-compete agreement against a departed employee? Many of these companies already have non-compete agreements with their employees, but are worried about their enforceability in Texas courts. 

I have previously written about how to enforce non-compete agreements in Texas, here, here, and hereSo, the answer to the first question is a resounding “Yes, non-compete agreements are enforceable in Texas.”

The answer to the second question is that, generally, only non-compete agreements with reasonable geographic, time and scope restrictions are enforceable in Texas. 

Assuming a positive answer to the first two questions, the answer to the third question depends on the circumstances of a particular departed employee and the answer to the following questions:

  • What position is the employee in at your company? C-Suite? Sales? Another position that gives him or her access to sensitive information within the company?
  • What special skills the employee has and what specialized training the employee has received in that position? 
  • Is the company where the employee is going a competitor of your company?
  • What position is the departed employee going to take at his or her new place of employment? Is it the same or similar position to what he or she was doing at your company?
  • How likely is it that the employee will use the confidential information he learned while working for you at his new job?
  • What activities does your non-compete prohibit the employee from doing?
  • For how long?  Remember, it must be reasonable.
  • What area does it cover? Reasonableness is key. 
  • Did you provide the right type of consideration for the employee’s promise not to compete?
  • Do you have a non-solicit agreement that will protect your company without having to enforce the non-compete agreement?

All of these factors will come into play if you decide to enforce a non-compete agreement in Texas. Additionally, you will need to consider where to file the lawsuit, the evidence that you will need in order to obtain a temporary restraining order against the employee, and a host of procedural and discovery issues that come along with litigating a non-compete case. 

Bottom Line: Enforcing non-compete agreements is as much of a business decision as it is a legal one.  Having a non-compete agreement that is legally enforceable, allows you to decide whether it makes business sense to enforce it against a particular employee.  Without a legally enforceable non-compete agreement, however, the business reasons may not even matter. 

Leiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits in a variety of industries. If you are a party to a dispute involving a noncompete agreement in Texas, contact Leiza at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108 or fill out the form below.

Top Five Posts In 2016

Top-5.jpgWhile most of my blog posts relate to non-compete and trade secrets issues, I do blog about general commercial and employment issues as well since I have a broad employment and business litigation practice. According to you, here’s the top five posts in 2016:

  1. Practical Guide to Enforcing Non-Compete Agreements in Texas (Part II)
  2. Common Defenses to a Breach of Contract Claim in Texas
  3. Foreign Plaintiff v. Foreign Defendant Destroys Diversity even if the Plaintiff’s Principal Place of Business is in Texas
  4. 5 Common Mistakes That Companies Make with Non-Disclosure Agreements
  5. Providing References for a Former Employee – What Can an Employer Say in Texas? 

Leiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits in a variety of industries in federal and state courts. For a consultation regarding a dispute involving a noncompete agreement or misappropriation of trade secrets, contact Leiza at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108 or fill out the form below.

Non-Compete and Confidentiality Issues to Watch in 2017

Non-Compete Issues to WatchIn 2016, there have been some major developments involving confidentiality and non-compete agreements law, which are likely to have some repercussions in 2017. Here’s a summary of the most important issues that companies should be aware of going into the new year.

1. The Federal Defend Trade Secrets Act.  This statute, enacted in May 2016, creates a federal question jurisdiction for misappropriation of trade secrets, allows companies to seize their trade secrets out of the hands of competitors in some circumstances, and provides whistleblower protection to employees when certain conditions are met.  In 2017, as companies begin to take advantage of the statute, the courts will begin creating a new body of law interpreting its provisions.

2. SEC Enforcement. The SEC will continue to go after the companies whose confidentiality agreements and policies they may find to violate the SEC’s whistleblowing rules.  Making sure that confidentiality agreements include the language specified in the federal Defend Trade Secrets Act may help with SEC’s scrutiny.

3. Choice of Law Issues.  Choice of law issues in interstate non-compete and confidentiality disputes will continue to be of major concern to companies who have out-of-state employees. A number of states in 2016 passed statutes dramatically limiting non-competes and California passed a statute that prohibits application of other states’ laws to its employees’ non-compete agreements. Business owners should make sure that their non-competes are enforceable in the jurisdictions in which they intend to enforce them.

4. Disclosure of Trade Secrets During Litigation.  This will continue to be a major point of dispute in trade secrets and non-compete lawsuits. For example, earlier this year, the Texas Supreme Court addressed what a trial judge must consider before allowing a competitor’s corporate representative in the courtroom during the testimony that might reveal the adverse party’s trade secrets. Thus, in 2017, those companies that are engaged in trade secrets misappropriation litigation in Texas will need to consider how this balancing test will apply in their particular circumstances. Many other states’ courts faced a similar issue in 2016 and have fashioned their own rules regarding when the disclosure of trade secrets in litigation is appropriate. 

TexasBarToday_TopTen_Badge_VectorGraphicLeiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits on behalf of COMPANIES and EMPLOYEES in a variety of industries, and knows how such disputes typically play out for both parties. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Federal Government Warns That Anti-Poaching and Wage-Fixing Agreements May Violate Antitrust Laws. What Does This Mean for Texas Companies?

dojThe Department of Justice (DOJ) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) recently issued Antitrust Guidance for HR Professionals (“Guidance”) intended to alert professionals involved in hiring and compensation decisions to potential violations of the antitrust laws.

This Guidance is the result of the infamous wage-fixing anti-poaching agreement among Ebay, Google, Apple, and other heavy-weights of the tech industry, which came to light in 2010 during the DOJ investigation and a civil class action involving 64,000 employees of such companies that settled in September of last year.

You can find the full text here, but the Guidance can be boiled down to the following simple rules for HR professionals:

  • companies that compete for employees are competitors regardless of whether they sell the same products or provide the same services
  • it is unlawful for competitors to agree not to compete with each other
  • therefore, companies may not agree – expressly or implicitly, in writing or orally – not to poach each other’s employees or to cap salaries or benefits of their employees
  • specifically, HR professionals are “likely” breaking the anti-trust laws if they:
    • agree with individuals at another company about employee salary or other terms of compensation, either at a specific level or within a range (wage-fixing agreement), or
    • agree with individuals at another company to refuse to solicit or hire that other company’s employees (“no poaching” agreements)
  • HR professionals should avoid sharing sensitive information with competitors as it could serve as evidence of an implicit illegal agreement (especially where it causes companies to match each other’s arrangement)

What are the consequences of violating the anti-trust rules?  The DOJ and/or FTC may bring a felony criminal prosecution against individuals involved in anti-poaching or wage-fixing agreements, the company, or both. Additionally, individual employees may bring a civil suit for three times the damages they suffered.

Takeaway for HR Professionals: We all know that price-fixing for goods is illegal, i.e., competing companies cannot get together and agree to charge consumers a certain price for certain goods in the market.  The Guidance makes it clear that agreeing on wages for employees is just as illegal and will be prosecuted.

What does this mean for Texas companies in terms of non-compete agreements?  The companies may still enter into such agreements with their employees (as long as they comply with the Texas Covenants not to Compete Act).  However, they cannot agree with other competing companies on the terms of such non-compete agreements. For example, Companies A and B, which are competing for the same employees, cannot enter into an agreement that they both will tie up their employees with no less than a 2-year, 30-mile non-compete agreement, or that the non-compete specifically will prohibit employees from working for Company A (if they worked for Company B), and vice versa. When in doubt about the legality of your particular agreement, seek legal counsel.

Leiza litigates unfair competition, non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits on behalf of companies and employees, and has advised hundreds of clients regarding non-compete and trade secret issues. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

 

The Difference Between Non-Competition and Non-Solicitation Restrictions

noncompeteSome states prohibit these restraints in employment contracts completely. Others allow one but not the other. Texas allows both. These restrictions on employees are meant to protect employers’ investment in their employees and confidential information shared with them during their employment.  A prudent employer will use one or both of these covenants to protect its confidential information from ending up in the hands of a competitor.

A non-compete covenant restricts an employee’s right to engage in a business activity that is competitive with his employer.  Whereas a non-solicitation clause restricts an employee’s ability to solicit the customers or employees of his former employer.  Often, employers will also include a confidentiality clause, which will prohibit their employees from sharing with third parties or using any confidential information they learned while working for the employer.

Whether an employer should include all of the above clauses or only some of them in its employment agreements depends on what role a particular employee will play in its business, how much customer interaction she or he will have, whether she or he will have access to any of the employer’s confidential information, and several other factors. 

Leiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits on behalf of COMPANIES and EMPLOYEES in a variety of industries, and has advised hundreds of clients regarding non-compete and trade secret issues. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.

Are Non-Compete Agreements Enforceable in Texas?

kkGenerally, Texas allows non-compete agreements between employers and employees as long as they are reasonable in scope, geographic area, and term, and meet a few other requirements. See my previous posts about those requirements here, here, and here

Practically speaking, however, whether a particular non-compete agreement is valid depends heavily on the exact language used in the agreement.  Just as with any other contract, Texas courts will usually look at the precise language of a particular employment agreement to determine what the parties had in mind when they entered into it. 

Last year, a hospitalist group in Houston learned the above principles the hard way when it attempted to enforce a non-compete covenant against a physician who went to work for a competitor and discovered that the non-compete did not prohibit the physician from doing so. 

In Tummalla et. al. v. Total Inpatient Services, P.A., the non-compete clause between the hospitalist group and the physician stated the following:

6.2 NonCompete. In consideration for the access to the Confidential Information provided by [TIPS] and in order to enforce the Physician’s Agreement regarding such Confidential Information, Physician agrees that he/she shall not, during the term of this Agreement and for a period of one (1) year from the date this Agreement expires pursuant to Section 8.3 or is terminated by Physician pursuant to Section 8.6 (the “Restriction Period”), without the prior written consent of [TIPS], except in the performance of duties for [TIPS] pursuant to this Agreement, directly or indirectly within any Hospital in the Service Area or any other hospital in which the Physician practiced on behalf of [TIPS], in excess of 40 hours, within his last year of employment with [TIPS]:
6.2.1 Provide services as a hospitalist physician to any entity that offers inpatient hospital and emergency department services.
In a separate provision in the same agreement, however, it stated that the physician’s first 12 months on the job were to be considered an “introductory period” during which either party could terminate the employment relationship for any reason. The specific paragraph stated that it applied notwithstanding any other provision in the agreement and it failed to included or mention any non-compete restrictions. 

The court of appeals analyzed these various clauses in the contract and concluded that because the physician terminated his employment with the hospitalist group within the first year, i.e. the “introductory period,” the post-employment non-compete clause did not apply to him. Thus, he was free to compete with his former employer. 

TAKEAWAY FOR EMPLOYERS: Employers should have a qualified attorney draft and/or review their non-compete agreements.  While there are many forms out there, because non-compete agreements in Texas have to be catered towards each employer’s business and because courts will scrutinize the language when determining whether to enforce the agreement or not, using a standard form may result in the employer not being able to enforce it due to gaps in the language or failure to address specific termination situations.

TAKEAWAY FOR EMPLOYEES:  Signing a non-compete agreement without reading it first can result in a major headache down the road and severely limit employee’s career options.  Therefore, employees should always: (1) read the agreement; (2) request a clarification if something is not clear; and (3) keep a copy of the signed agreement for their records.

Leiza litigates non-compete and trade secrets lawsuits in a variety of industries, and has advised hundreds of clients regarding non-compete and trade secret issues. If you need assistance with a non-compete or a trade secret misappropriation situation, contact Leiza for a confidential consultation at Leiza.Dolghih@lewisbrisbois.com or (214) 722-7108.